Through these case studies, we have learned the intricate ties between government regulation and the telecommunications industry. Good policies should be flexible, and strike a balance between providing social benefits and individual gains. Government intervention can be beneficial especially in bringing into existence large scale infrastructure such as the Internet, and social services such as the Universal Service. Traditionally the communication infrastructure has been viewed as a "natural monopoly", and was highly regulated. However, as the industry matures, the government has realized the necessity to lessen its role and allow free competition through deregulation.
Many other factors also contribute to market structure and the development and adoption of technologies. It is the web of interactions among these various factors that ultimately determines the direction of the industry and the fate of technologies.