61A Homework 6

Due by 11:59pm on Tuesday, 10/22

Submission. See the online submission instructions. We have provided a hw6.py starter file for the questions below.

Readings. Section 2.5 of Composing Programs.

Q0. Complete the mid-semester survey. We ask for your name and login in order to correlate responses to different surveys across the semester. We will otherwise keep your response confidential and anonymous.

Q1. Create a class called VendingMachine that represents a vending machine for some product. A VendingMachine object returns strings describing its interactions. See the doctest below for examples:

class VendingMachine(object):
    """A vending machine that vends some product for some price.

    >>> v = VendingMachine('candy', 10)
    >>> v.vend()
    'Machine is out of stock.'
    >>> v.restock(2)
    'Current candy stock: 2'
    >>> v.vend()
    'You must deposit $10 more.'
    >>> v.deposit(7)
    'Current balance: $7'
    >>> v.vend()
    'You must deposit $3 more.'
    >>> v.deposit(5)
    'Current balance: $12'
    >>> v.vend()
    'Here is your candy and $2 change.'
    >>> v.deposit(10)
    'Current balance: $10'
    >>> v.vend()
    'Here is your candy.'
    >>> v.deposit(15)
    'Machine is out of stock. Here is your $15.'
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Q2. Create a class called MissManners that promotes politeness among our objects. A MissManners object takes another object on construction. It has one method, called ask. It responds by calling methods on the object it contains, but only if the caller said please first.

Hint: Your implementation will need to use the *args notation that allows functions to take a flexible number of arguments:

class MissManners(object):
    """A container class that only forward messages that say please.

    >>> v = VendingMachine('teaspoon', 10)
    >>> v.restock(2)
    'Current teaspoon stock: 2'
    >>> m = MissManners(v)
    >>> m.ask('vend')
    'You must learn to say please first.'
    >>> m.ask('please vend')
    'You must deposit $10 more.'
    >>> m.ask('please deposit', 20)
    'Current balance: $20'
    >>> m.ask('now will you vend?')
    'You must learn to say please first.'
    >>> m.ask('please hand over a teaspoon')
    'Thanks for asking, but I know not how to hand over a teaspoon'
    >>> m.ask('please vend')
    'Here is your teaspoon and $10 change.'
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

Q3. (Extra for experts) Read Section 2.6 of Composing Programs. You can also watch the Fall 2012 lecture on this topic. Add multiple inheritance to the function-based object system described in that section. You will need to make the following changes:

  1. Allow a class to be created with an arbitrary number of base classes.
  2. Classes should respond to a message 'mro' that returns the method resolution order for the class.
  3. Looking up an attribute by name in a class (using the 'get' message) should follow the method resolution order.

Choose a method resolution order that ensures a name is never looked up in a base class before one of its subclasses:

def make_instance(some_class):
    """Return a new object instance of some_class."""
    def get_value(name):
        if name in attributes:
            return attributes[name]
            value = some_class['get'](name)
            return bind_method(value, instance)

    def set_value(name, value):
        attributes[name] = value

    attributes = {}
    instance = {'get': get_value, 'set': set_value}
    return instance

def bind_method(value, instance):
    """Return value or a bound method if value is callable."""
    if callable(value):
        def method(*args):
            return value(instance, *args)
        return method
        return value

def make_class(attributes, base_classes=()):
    """Return a new class with attributes.

    attributes -- class attributes
    base_classes -- a sequence of classes
    "*** YOUR CODE HERE ***"

def init_instance(some_class, *args):
    """Return a new instance of some_class, initialized with args."""
    instance = make_instance(some_class)
    init = some_class['get']('__init__')
    if init:
        init(instance, *args)
    return instance

# AsSeenOnTVAccount example from lecture.

def make_account_class():
    """Return the Account class, which has deposit and withdraw methods."""

    interest = 0.02

    def __init__(self, account_holder):
        self['set']('holder', account_holder)
        self['set']('balance', 0)

    def deposit(self, amount):
        """Increase the account balance by amount and return the new balance."""
        new_balance = self['get']('balance') + amount
        self['set']('balance', new_balance)
        return self['get']('balance')

    def withdraw(self, amount):
        """Decrease the account balance by amount and return the new balance."""
        balance = self['get']('balance')
        if amount > balance:
            return 'Insufficient funds'
        self['set']('balance', balance - amount)
        return self['get']('balance')

    return make_class(locals())

Account = make_account_class()

def make_checking_account_class():
    """Return the CheckingAccount class, which imposes a $1 withdrawal fee.

    >>> checking = CheckingAccount['new']('Jack')
    >>> checking['get']('interest')
    >>> checking['get']('deposit')(20)
    >>> checking['get']('withdraw')(5)
    interest = 0.01
    withdraw_fee = 1

    def withdraw(self, amount):
        fee = self['get']('withdraw_fee')
        return Account['get']('withdraw')(self, amount + fee)

    return make_class(locals(), [Account])

CheckingAccount = make_checking_account_class()

def make_savings_account_class():
    """Return the SavingsAccount class, which imposes a $2 deposit fee.

    >>> savings = SavingsAccount['new']('Jack')
    >>> savings['get']('interest')
    >>> savings['get']('deposit')(20)
    >>> savings['get']('withdraw')(5)
    deposit_fee = 2

    def deposit(self, amount):
        fee = self['get']('deposit_fee')
        return Account['get']('deposit')(self, amount - fee)

    return make_class(locals(), [Account])

SavingsAccount = make_savings_account_class()

def make_as_seen_on_tv_account_class():
    """Return an account with lots of fees and a free dollar.

    >>> such_a_deal = AsSeenOnTVAccount['new']('Jack')
    >>> such_a_deal['get']('balance')
    >>> such_a_deal['get']('interest')
    >>> such_a_deal['get']('deposit')(20)
    >>> such_a_deal['get']('withdraw')(5)
    def __init__(self, account_holder):
        self['set']('holder', account_holder)
        self['set']('balance', 1)

    return make_class(locals(), [CheckingAccount, SavingsAccount])

AsSeenOnTVAccount = make_as_seen_on_tv_account_class()